1725 The 2nd Marquess of Rothgar marries Augusta Trayce|
Beowulf Arthur George Malloren born as Lord Grafton
The state of England then was:
Approximate population: 8 million
approximate population of Wales: 500,000
Approximate population of Scotland: 1.2 million
Approximate population of Ireland: 2.5 million
Approximate population of London: 800,000
Time taken to travel by coach, assuming reasonable conditions:
London to York (188 miles): 4 days
London to Dover (76 miles): 2 days
London be Bath (107 miles): 3 days
Important world rulers in 1725:
George I is King of England
Peter the Great of Russia dies, and is succeeded by his wife Catherine.
Louis XV is king of France
Frederick William I is king of Prussia
Frederick IV is King of Denmark
Some active composers: J.S. Bach, Handel, Scarlatti, Vivaldi, Gluck
Some active writers in England: Jonathan Swift,
Other: The novel Moll Flanders published in 1722
Also in 1725
Opening of Guy's Hospital. (First clinical hospital since the reformation.)
George I revives the Order of the Bath.
Beginning of 11 years of metalled road costruction in Scotland
Voltaire in England for the next three years.
Gulliver's Travels, by Jonathan Swift
Handel becomes British subject.
The first circulating library in Britain opens in Edinburgh
First measure of blood pressure
Feb The Spanish beseige Gibraltar. Leads to war.
June, George I dies, Prince of Wales becomes George II
Tsarina Catherine dies. Peter II is Tsar.
John Wood begins the town plans for Bath.
The Quakers speak out against slavery.
Feb. Truce between England and Spain
May Romance Catholics disenfranchised in Ireland
Alexander Pope's The Dunciad
John Gay's The Beggar's Opera
First edition of Chambers' Encyclopedia, two volumes.
Edith Guinevere Matilda Malloren born and dies
Augusta, Marchioness of Rothgar held in close confinement at Rothgar Abbey
George II's son, Prince Frederick Louis is made Prince of Wales.
Queen's Square Bath begun.
Charles Wesley founds Holy Club at Oxford (Becomes the methodists in 1733)
J.S.Bach, St. Matthew Passion.
The marchioness dies. The marquess marries Gabrielle de Maure of France.
"Turnip" Townshend improves rotation of crops, advocating the use of turnips for crop rotation and winter fodder.
Crown Prince Frederick of Prussia (later Frederick the Great) imprisoned by his father after attempting to flee to England.
Poet Laureate, Colley Cibber
Tsar Peter dies, succeeded by Anne
King Frederick IV of Denmark dies, succeeded by Christian VI
Lord Arcenbryght Lancelot William Malloren born
Treaty of Vienna between England, Holland, Spain and the Holy Roman Empire.
William Hogarth, The Harlot's Progress.
Congreve, The Way of the World.
Invention of quadrant
James Oglethorpe obtains royal charter to create a colony in America (Georgia) where people from Debtor's prisons could start a new life.
Covent Garden Theatre opens.
Lord Brand Galahad Henry Mallorne born
William Hogarth, The Rake's Progress. (Over the next 3 years)
Jethro Tull, Horse Hoeing Husbandry becomes guide for the agricultural revolution.
Oglethorpe takes a 120 first settlers to settle Savannah
The Serpentine (lake) in Hyde Park laid out.
Lady Hilda Elayne Maude Malloren born
Long full wigs for men go out of fashion, replaced by the peruke, tied at the nape.
Charles and John Wesley go to Oglethorpe's colony, but are unpopular there because they preach against slavery and alcohol.
Hogarth, The Rake's Progress.
Portia St. Claire born
Fortitude Harleigh Ware born as Lord Thornhill
Prince of Wales Frederick Louis marries Augusta of Saxe-Coburg-Altenburg(Parents of George III)
Repeal of laws against witchcraft
Mayfair in London begins to develop
Lady Elfled Enid Elizabeth Malloren born
Lord Cynric Gawain Edward Malloren born
Lady Diana Westmount born
Samuel Johnson settles in London
Split between George II and the Prince and Princess of Wales.
Covent Garden, Drury Lane, and the King's Theatre, Haymarket are only licenced theatres in London. Lord Chancellor has power of censorship over plays performed.
Queen Caroline dies
Lady Verity Ware born
Rosamunde Ellington born
Future George III born.
Dick Turpin hanged
Camellias introduced to England
The "War of Jenkin's Ear" begins with Spain.
December to February, the Great Frost
Oliver Upcott born (Portia St. Claire's half-brother.)
Samuel Richardson's novel, Pamela
"Rule Britannia" first sung
Frederick The Great acceeds to the throne in Prussia
Charles VI of Austria dies, succeeded by daughter, Maria Theresa
Tsarina Anne dies, succeeded by Ivan VI
Prussia and Austria at war
David Garrick debutes in London, in the role of Richard III
Ivan VI deposed. New ruler is Tzarina Elizabeth
War of Austrian Succession begins on the continent.
Lady Chastity Ware born
George II and Prince of Wales are reconciled.
Henry Fielding, Joseph Andrews
Handel's Messiah first performed.
Anders Celcius invents the centrigrade thermometer.
Cotton factories in Birmingham and Northhampton.
(till 1745) William Hogarth, Marriage a la Mode
Boxing rules codified
East India yarns imported into Lancashire.
2nd Marquess of Rothgar and the Marchioness of Rothgar die
Lord Grafton becomes the 3rd marquess
First organized cricket match
Alexander Pope dies
Madrigal Society formed in London (Frequently attended by George III and Queen Charlotte.)
Prudence Upcott born
First women's cricket match
July, Prince Charles Edward Stuart lands in Scotland
Sept, Jacobites capture Edinburgh
Dec, Jacobites reach Derby. Panic in London. But lack of support leads to retreat north.
Robert Bakewell of Leicestershire begins scientific stockbreeding
Jacobites defeated at Culloden
Flora MacDonald helps Bonnie Prince Charlie to escape.
Antonio Canaletto begins to paint London scenes
Wearing of tartans forbidden in Britain (Repealed 1782)
Four Jacobite leaders are executed. Lord Lovat is beheaded on Tower Hill, the last execution there.
David Hume, Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding.
Richardson publishes first part of Clarissa.
Smollett, Adventures of Roderick Random.
Platinum arrives in Europe
Henry Fielding becomes Magistrate of Bow Street, and begins his "thief takers", the first police force.
Henry Fielding, Tom Jones
John Cleland, Fanny Hill
Handel's Music for the Royal Fireworks
Halifax Nova Scotia established as a fortress.
The Jockey Club founded.
Neoclassicism begins to replace Rococo style
J.S. Bach dies
The Prince of Wales dies of pneumonia
Hogarth paints Gin Lane, Beer Street, and The Four Stages of Cruelty.
The Gin Act regulates production and supply
Thomas Gray, Elegy Written In A Country Churchyard
Thomas Smollett, Adventures of Peregrine Pickle
The minuet becomes popular
English calendar changed so that January 1st is the beginning of the New Year. (Previously was April 1st)
Britain adopts the Gregorian calendar, eliminating the days 3-13 September to make the correction. Riots of people demanding back their lost days.
Lady Hilda Malloren marries Charles Leynings, Earl of Steen
The Hardwicke marriage act makes banns and the services of a licenced minister necessary.
Thomas Chippendale opens his workshop
Newcastle racecourse becomes a permanent one.
Rosamunde Ellington marries Sir Digby Overton
Lady Sarah Leynings born
John Fielding begins the Bow Street Runners.
Chippendale publishes The Gentleman and Cabinet Maker's Director
The Bluestockings begin -- meetings of women and men to promote rational conversation.
The first rules for golf
Lord Cynric Malloren succeeds in joining the army
Charles Leynings, Lord Harber born
Lady Eleanor Leynings born
Samuel Johnson publishes the first dictionary.
Massive earthquake in Lisbon, Portugal
Samuel Johnson's Dictionary
Continuing conflict in Europe becomes the Seven Years War (The French and Indian War.)
June, The Black Hole of Calcutta
Admiral Byng breaks off naval action near Minorca.
Byng shot for cowardice. (Voltaire said, "Pour encourager les autres" -- to encourage others not to be cautious in battle.)
Poet Laureate, William Whitehead
Damiens is executed in France for attempting to assassinate Louis XV
Lady Mary Leynings born
James Wolfe and Jeffrey Amherst capture Louisburg fortress in Canada from the French.
Fort Duquesne captured and renamed Pittsburg (after British Secretary of State, William Pitt.)
Lady Verity Ware marries Sir William Vernon
Lady Mary Leynings dies
General Wolfe captures Plains of Abraham, Quebec. He dies there.
Admiral Hawke destroys French squadron off Quiberon Bay.
Lawrence Sterne's novel, Tristram Shandy
The British Museum opens.
The Duke of Bridgewater begins his canal project.
Earl Ferrars is hanged for the murder of his valet. Last peer to be executed in Britain.
Amherst captures Montreal, and Britain controls Canada.
George II dies. George III becomes king.
Stern, Tristram Shandy
Rules of whist set down
March, George II makes his tutor and mentor, the Earl of Bute, Secretary of State.
Pitt resigns as Secretary of State because the king and Bute are opposed to the war.
July, Lord Cynric Malloren brought back to England near to death
September. George marries Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
September, Lady Chastity Ware presented at court; disgraced; William Vernham born; Arthur Leynings born
November, Chastity Ware kidnaps Lord Cynric Malloren; Lord Bryght Malloren invades Portia St. Claire's house
December, The Earl of Walgrave dies; Chastity and Cyn marry; Portia and Oliver go to London; Portia and Bryght marry
The Duke of Bridgewater's Canal to Manchester is completed
May, the king and queen move into Buckingham House, which is given to the queen and becomes known as the Queen's House; Bute becomes Prime Minister.
June, John Wilkes, MP, launches a newspaper, The North Briton, hostile to Bute, and thus to the king.
June, Lady Elfled Malloren goes to a midsummer masquerade and is taken captive by Fort, Lord Walgrave; the Mallorens foil an attempt on the king's life; Fort is injured
July, Fort is healing; he leaves for Italy
August, future George IV born, becomes the Prince of Wales; Francis Malloren born; Rosa Overton finds Brand Malloren by the road
September, Rothgar goes north; Sir Digby Overton dies; Lady Arradale foils Rothgar's attempt to kidnap Rosa
Nov. beginning of peace process.
Oliver Goldsmith, The Traveller, a poem.
December, Elf and Fort marry
January, John Malloren born in Halifax, Nova Scotia
Feb, Peace of Paris signed.
April, Bute resigns and George Grenville becomes Prime Minister; North Briton #45 published, containing an attack on the king; Wilkes imprisoned in the Tower.
May, Wilkes released because his position as Member of Parliament offers protection; Rosa's baby born; Boswell meets Dr. Johnson
July, Brand and Rosa marry: Lord Rothgar and Lady Arradale are present
December, Wilkes flees to France.
Johann Christian Bach's opera Orion first performed.
Almack's Club opens in Pall Mall. (As a gambling club originally.)
(A glimpse at the future)
Wilkes found guilty of seditious libel, and also for obscenity for An Essay On Women.
Mozart, aged 8, performs for George III
James Hargeaves invents the spinning jenny
George III ill. First sign of later problems.
Stamp Act imposes taxation on American colonies.
"Capability" Brown begins to design gardens
Parliament affirms right to tax colonies, but repeals Stamp Act.
Pitt, now Earl of Chatham, becomes Prime Minister
George Stubbs, Anatomy of the Horse.
Oliver Goldsmith's, The Vicar of Wakefield.
Chatham too ill to run government.
Parliament imposes taxes for colonies on tea, glass, and paper.
Joseph Priestley, History of Electricity
Wilkes runs in general election while remaining in France. Is elected.
The House of Commons revokes his election. Riots.
Wilkes returns and is imprisoned.
Royal Academy of Arts founded.
Lawrence Sterne, A Sentimental Journey
James Cook, first pacific voyage.
James Watt patents steam engine.
Josiah Wedgwood opens Etruria pottery.
Cook reaches New Zealand.
Lord North becomes Prime Minister.
Taxes imposed on colonies repealed except for the one on tea.
Wilkes continues to be elected in subsequent bi-election. Is released from prison. Election still ruled invalid.
March, "Boston Massacre."
Thomas Gainsborough, The Blue Boy.
Cook discovers Botany Bay